Sunday, July 27, 2008

The Anointing -Word Study

The Anointing - Word Study

Old Testament (Hebrew)
Hb/Gk Word : mishchah
Pronunciation : mēsh·khä'
English Equivalent :
anointing, anointed, ointment

New Testament (Greek)
Hb/Gk Word : chrisma
Pronunciation : khrē'-smä
English Equivalent : anointing, unction

Strongs #
Old Testament (Hebrew
Hb/Gk Word : 'owb
Pronunciation : obe
English Equivalent : familiar spirit(s), bottles
Hb/Gk Word : ba`alah
Pronunciation : bah·al·ä'
English Equivalent : mistress, hath (a familiar spirit)
Hb/Gk Word : nĕshamah
Pronunciation : nesh·ä·mä'
English Equivalent :
breath, blast, spirit, inspiration, souls
Hb/Gk Word : ruwach
Pronunciation : rü'·akh
English Equivalent : spirit or spirit, wind, breath, side, mind, blast, vain, air, anger, cool, courage, misc
Hb/Gk Word : ruwach (Aramaic)
Pronunciation : rü'·akh
English Equivalent : spirit, wind, mind

New Testament (Greek)
Hb/Gk Word : pneuma
Pronunciation : pnyü'-mä
English Equivalent : spirit, Holy Ghost, spirit (of God), spirit (of the Lord), (My) spirit, spirit (of truth), spirit (of Christ), human (spirit), (evil) spirit, spirit (general), spirit, (Jesus' own) spirit, (Jesus' own) ghost
Hb/Gk Word : pneumatikos
Pronunciation : pnyü-mä-tē-ko's
English Equivalent : spiritual
Hb/Gk Word : pneumatikōs
Pronunciation : pnyü-mä-tē-kō's
English Equivalent : spiritual
Hb/Gk Word : phantasma
Pronunciation : fä'n-tä-smä
English Equivalent : spirit
Hb/Gk Word : phronēma
Pronunciation : fro'-nā-mä
English Equivalent : mind, carnally minded, spiritually minded

Anoint, Anointing

Anoint - The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the Hebrews. The act of anointing was significant of consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the high priest (Ex_29:29; Lev_4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Ex_30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the anointed" (Lev_4:3, 5, 16; Lev_6:20; Psalm_132:10). Anointing a king was equivalent to crowning him (1_Sam_16:13; 2_Sam_2:4, etc.). Prophets were also anointed (1_Kings_19:16; 1_Chron_16:22; Psalm_105:15). The expression, "anoint the shield" (Isaiah_21:5), refers to the custom of rubbing oil on the leather of the shield so as to make it supple and fit for use in war.

Anointing was also an act of hospitality (Luke_7:38, 46). It was the custom of the Jews in like manner to anoint themselves with oil, as a means of refreshing or invigorating their bodies (Deut_28:40; Ruth_3:3; 2_Sam_14:2; Psalm_104:15, etc.). This custom is continued among the Arabians to the present day.

Oil was used also for medicinal purposes. It was applied to the sick, and also to wounds (Psalm_109:18; Isaiah_1:6; Mark_6:13; James_5:14). The bodies of the dead were sometimes anointed (Mark_14:8; Luke_23:56). The promised Deliverer is twice called the "Anointed" or Messiah (Psalm_2:2; Dan_9:25,26), because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost (Isaiah_61:1), figuratively styled the "oil of gladness" (Psalm_45:7; Heb_1:9). Jesus of Nazareth is this anointed One (John_1:41; Acts_9:22; Acts_17:2, 3; Acts_18:5, 28), the Messiah of the Old Testament.

Anoint, Anointing
A. Verbs
B. Noun

A1. Anoint, Anointing [Verb]
aleipho is a general term used for "an anointing" of any kind, whether of physical refreshment after washing, e.g., in the Sept. of
Ruth_3:3; 2_Sam_12:20; Dan_10:3; Mic_6:15; in the NT,Matt_6:17; Luke_7:38,46; John_11:2; John_12:3; or of the sick, Mark_6:13; James_5:14; or a dead body, Mark_16:1. The material used was either oil, or ointment, as in Luke_7:38,46. In the Sept. it is also used of "anointing" a pillar, Gen_31:13, or captives, 2_Chron_28:15, or of daubing a wall with mortar, Ezek_13:10-12,14,15; and, in the sacred sense, of "anointing" priests, in Ex_40:15 (twice), and Num_3:3. See also : aleipho in other topics

A2. Anoint, Anointing [Verb]
chrio is more limited in its use than
aleipho; it is confined to "sacred and symbolical anointings;" of Christ as the "Anointed" of God, Luke_4:18; Acts_4:27; Acts_10:38, andHeb_1:9, where it is used metaphorically in connection with "the oil of gladness." The title Christ signifies "The Anointed One," The word (Christos) is rendered "(His) Anointed" inActs_4:26, RV. Once it is said of believers, 2_Cor_1:21. Chrio is very frequent in the Sept., and is used of kings, 1_Sam_10:1, and priests, Ex_28:41, and prophets, 1_Kings_19:16. Among the Greeks it was used in other senses than the ceremonial, but in the Scriptures it is not found in connection with secular matters.

Note: The distinction referred to by Trench (Syn. xxxviii), that aleipho is the mundane and profane, chrio, the sacred and religious word, is not borne out by evidence. In a papyrus document chrisis is used of "a lotion for a sick horse" (Moulton and Milligan, Vocab. of Greek Test).

A3. Anoint, Anointing [Verb]
enchrio primarily, "to rub in," hence, "to besmear, to anoint," is used metaphorically in the command to the church in Laodicea to "anoint" their eyes with eyesalve,
Rev_3:18. In the Sept., Jer_4:30, it is used of the "anointing" of the eyes with a view to beautifying them.

A4. Anoint, Anointing [Verb]
epichrio primarily, "to rub on" (epi, "upon"), is used of the blind man whose eyes Christ "anointed," and indicates the manner in which the "anointing" was done,
John_9:6, 11.

A5. Anoint, Anointing [Verb]
murizo is used of "anointing" the body for burial, in

B1. Anoint, Anointing [Noun]
chrisma the corresponding noun to
chrio, signifies "an unguent, or an anointing." It was prepared from oil and aromatic herbs. It is used only metaphorically in the NT; by metonymy, of the Holy Spirit, 1_John_2:20, 27, twice. The RV translates it "anointing" in all three places, instead of the AV "unction" and "anointing."
That believers have "an anointing from the Holy One" indicates that this anointing renders them holy, separating them to God. The passage teaches that the gift of the Holy Spirit is the all-efficient means of enabling believers to possess a knowledge of the truth. In the Sept., it is used of the oil for "anointing" the high priest, e.g.,
Ex_29:7, lit., "Thou shalt take of the oil of the anointing." In Ex_30:25, etc., it is spoken of as "a holy anointing oil." In Dan_9:26 chrisma stands for the "anointed" one, "Christ," the noun standing by metonymy for the person Himself, as for the Holy Spirit in 1_John_2. See UNCTION.

Notes: (1) Aleimma, akin to aleipho (not in the NT), occurs three times in the Sept.,Ex_30:31, of the "anointing" of the priests; Isaiah_61:3, metaphorically, of the oil of joy;Dan_10:3, of physical refreshment.
(2) Muron, a word akin to murizo, denotes "ointment." The distinction between this and elaion, "oil," is observable in Christ's reproof of the Pharisee who, while desiring Him to eat with him, failed in the ordinary marks of courtesy; "My head with oil (elaion) thou didst not anoint, but she hath anointed My feet with ointment" (muron), Luke_7:46.


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